Games for Practitioners

Group of scholars and practitioners who use experimental games to facilitate self-governance of common resources. Group members can share their experience with the games, share photos on the games in action and ask questions on it’s proper application.

Introduction

Experimental games are used as intervention tools to stimulate collective action on nature resource management. The origin of this use of experiments is the observation by Juan Camilo Cardenas in the early 2000s that when he returned to villages where experiments on common pool resources were done, communities sometimes had changes their governance as a response to lessons learned from the participation in experiments. Since 2012 we start testing the use of experimental games as intervention tools in India and Colombia (see also here). The experiments have their roots in theory and can be applied to many situations. As such it provides an intervention tool that can be applied to many communities (in contrast to games that are created with the communities).Here we provide manuals of games that could be used as intervention tools.  We also provide videos on how the experiments are used. The experimental games do not provide solutions, but they provide a safe tacit experience by various people of the community that stimulate a discussion on governance issues of their shared natural resources. Below you find a video on experiences how the games are used in India.

Introduction

Experimental games are used as intervention tools to stimulate collective action on nature resource management. The origin of this use of experiments is the observation by Juan Camilo Cardenas in the early 2000s that when he returned to villages where experiments on common pool resources were done, communities sometimes had changes their governance as a response to lessons learned from the participation in experiments. Since 2012 we start testing the use of experimental games as intervention tools in India and Colombia (see also here). The experiments have their roots in theory and can be applied to many situations. As such it provides an intervention tool that can be applied to many communities (in contrast to games that are created with the communities).Here we provide manuals of games that could be used as intervention tools.  We also provide videos on how the experiments are used. The experimental games do not provide solutions, but they provide a safe tacit experience by various people of the community that stimulate a discussion on governance issues of their shared natural resources. Below you find a video on experiences how the games are used in India.

Potato Market Game for Practitioners

In this game the participants experience the power of the ‘invisible hand’. Each player has their own economic profile when it will be beneficial to sell potatoes. The participants experience that although each individual tries to do best for him or herself, players are able to trade and everyone benefits. After playing the standard potato market game we introduce externalities where players experience the consequences of the product on say the environment for which one adjust the price of the potatoes to internalize the impact of potato production on the environment.

(1) Without Externalities Version  (2) With Externalities Version

(1)  
(2)

Browse instruction manuals for the potato market game by clicking these images.

Potato Market Game for Practitioners

In this game the participants experience the power of the ‘invisible hand’. Each player has their own economic profile when it will be beneficial to sell potatoes. The participants experience that although each individual tries to do best for him or herself, players are able to trade and everyone benefits. After playing the standard potato market game we introduce externalities where players experience the consequences of the product on say the environment for which one adjust the price of the potatoes to internalize the impact of potato production on the environment.

(1) Without Externalities Version  (2) With Externalities Version

(1)  
(2)

Browse instruction manuals for the potato market game by clicking these images.

Cooperation, Coordination, and Conflict Game for Practitioners

In this set of games standard 2-player games on cooperation and coordination are framed in a natural resource management context. With this set of games we can see how small changes in the payoff matrix affect the nature of the social dilemma and expected outcomes. Those two-player games are the starting point for the more comprehensive n-player games that can be found on the rest of this page.

Browse instruction manual for the the cooperation, coordination, and conflict game by clicking this image.

DOWNLOAD Instruction Manual of the Cooperation, Coordination, and Conflict Game for Practitioners

Manual-PDF File

Manual-Word Document (.docx)

Cooperation, Coordination, and Conflict Game for Practitioners

In this set of games standard 2-player games on cooperation and coordination are framed in a natural resource management context. With this set of games we can see how small changes in the payoff matrix affect the nature of the social dilemma and expected outcomes. Those two-player games are the starting point for the more comprehensive n-player games that can be found on the rest of this page.

Browse instruction manual for the the cooperation, coordination, and conflict game by clicking this image.

DOWNLOAD Instruction Manual of the Cooperation, Coordination, and Conflict Game for Practitioners

Manual-PDF File

Manual-Word Document (.docx)

Game of Trust for Practitioners

With this game we can measure trust and truthworthiness. The trust game is played by two players, where the first player have to decide how much to trust player 2 by giving this player an amount of his/her resources. The amount given to player 2 will be increased and player 2 will demonstrate it’s trustworthiness by deciding how much to give back to player 1 and how much to keep for him/herself.

Browse instruction manual for the game of trust by clicking this image.

DOWNLOAD Instruction Manual of the Game of Trust for Practitioners

Manual PDF File

Manual Word document (.docx)

Game of Trust for Practitioners

With this game we can measure trust and truthworthiness. The trust game is played by two players, where the first player have to decide how much to trust player 2 by giving this player an amount of his/her resources. The amount given to player 2 will be increased and player 2 will demonstrate it’s trustworthiness by deciding how much to give back to player 1 and how much to keep for him/herself.

Browse instruction manual for the game of trust by clicking this image.

DOWNLOAD Instruction Manual of the Game of Trust for Practitioners

Manual PDF File

Manual Word document (.docx)

Public Goods Game for Practitioners

This game is the classic public good game which captures a dilemma between what is good for the individual and for the group. An example is contributing labor to a community project. If everyone contributes to the project, everybody benefits, but if one person freerides and does not contribute labor, that person will still get the benefits.

Browse instruction manual for the public goods game by clicking this image.

DOWNLOAD Instruction Manual of Public Goods Game for Practitioners

Manual-PDF File

Manual-Words Document (.docx)

Public Goods Game for Practitioners

This game is the classic public good game which captures a dilemma between what is good for the individual and for the group. An example is contributing labor to a community project. If everyone contributes to the project, everybody benefits, but if one person freerides and does not contribute labor, that person will still get the benefits.

Browse instruction manual for the public goods game by clicking this image.

DOWNLOAD Instruction Manual of Public Goods Game for Practitioners

Manual-PDF File

Manual-Words Document (.docx)

Common Pool Resources Game for Practitioners

In this game participants share a common resource. We can create the situation of over-harvesting, popularly known as the “tragedy of the common”. We can adjust the rules of the game, for example by allowing participants to communicate with each other, to avoid over-harvesting without state-level interventions.

Browse instruction manual for the common pool resources game by clicking this images.

DOWNLOAD Instruction Manual of the Common Pool Resources Game for Practitioners

Manual-PDF File

Manual-Word Document File (.docx)

Common Pool Resources Game for Practitioners

In this game participants share a common resource. We can create the situation of over-harvesting, popularly known as the “tragedy of the common”. We can adjust the rules of the game, for example by allowing participants to communicate with each other, to avoid over-harvesting without state-level interventions.

Browse instruction manual for the common pool resources game by clicking this images.

DOWNLOAD Instruction Manual of the Common Pool Resources Game for Practitioners

Manual-PDF File

Manual-Word Document File (.docx)

Watershed Game for Practitioners

In this game participants experience asymmetries in a watershed where upstream players experience different problems and incentives compared to those downstream. The players make decisions on land use and whether they want to provide or accept payments to compensate the consequences of upstream players.

Browse instruction manual for the watershed game by clicking this image.

DOWNLOAD Instruction Manual for the Watershed Game for Practitioners

Manual PDF File

Watershed Game for Practitioners

In this game participants experience asymmetries in a watershed where upstream players experience different problems and incentives compared to those downstream. The players make decisions on land use and whether they want to provide or accept payments to compensate the consequences of upstream players.

Browse instruction manual for the watershed game by clicking this image.

DOWNLOAD Instruction Manual for the Watershed Game for Practitioners

Manual PDF File

Negotiations Game for Practitioners

In this game players will be in a large group but make each round a decision in a 2-player game where one player has control and propose a solution to a negotiation, and the other player can accept. Each round the player will play with somebody else, and we will see whether this distribution negotiation lead to a group level agreement.

Browse instruction manual for the negotiations game by clicking this image.

DOWNLOAD Instruction Manual of Negotiations Game for Practitioners

Manual-PDF File

Negotiations Game for Practitioners

In this game players will be in a large group but make each round a decision in a 2-player game where one player has control and propose a solution to a negotiation, and the other player can accept. Each round the player will play with somebody else, and we will see whether this distribution negotiation lead to a group level agreement.

Browse instruction manual for the negotiations game by clicking this image.

DOWNLOAD Instruction Manual of Negotiations Game for Practitioners

Manual-PDF File

Game on Managing Check Dams for Practitioners

Hereby we provide two versions of a game on managing check dams. The game is developed by Thomas Falk , Shalander Kumar, Srinivasa Srigiri, and Vishwambhar Duche of the International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics in India, Bjoern Vollan and Lara Bartels of the University of Marburg in Germany and Ishan Agrawal of the Foundation for Ecological Security in India. The game is based on the irrigation game that can be found on this website further down.

(1) Public Good Version  (2) Common Pool Resources Version

(1)  
(2)

Browse instruction manuals for the game on managing check dams by clicking these image.

DOWNLOAD Instruction Manuals for the Game on Managing Check Dams for Practitioners

Public Good Version PDF File
Common Pool Resources Version PDF file

Game on Managing Check Dams for Practitioners

Hereby we provide two versions of a game on managing check dams. The game is developed by Thomas Falk , Shalander Kumar, Srinivasa Srigiri, and Vishwambhar Duche of the International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics in India, Bjoern Vollan and Lara Bartels of the University of Marburg in Germany and Ishan Agrawal of the Foundation for Ecological Security in India. The game is based on the irrigation game that can be found on this website further down.

(1) Public Good Version  (2) Common Pool Resources Version

(1)
(2)

Browse instruction manuals for the game on managing check dams by clicking these image.

DOWNLOAD Instruction Manuals for the Game on Managing Check Dams for Practitioners

Public Good Version PDF File
Common Pool Resources Version PDF file

Pastoralism Game for Practitioners

In this game participants have to decide how much livestock to put in different locations.

Browse instruction manual for the pastoralism game by clicking this image.

DOWNLOAD Instruction Manual and Forms for the Pastoralism Game for Practitioners

Manual PDF File
Forms Word document (.docx)

Pastoralism Game for Practitioners

In this game participants have to decide how much livestock to put in different locations.

Browse instruction manual for the pastoralism game by clicking this image.

DOWNLOAD Instruction Manual and Forms for the Pastoralism Game for Practitioners

Manual PDF File
Forms Word document (.docx)

Irrigation Game for Practitioners

In this game participants have to make decisions to invest in the irrigation system maintenance and to extract water for irrigating their individual plots.

Browse instruction manual for the irrigation game by clicking this image.

Video on experiences with irrigation game in Colombia.

DOWNLOAD Instruction Manual and Forms for the Irrigation Game for Practitioners

Manual PDF File
Forms Word document (.docx)

Irrigation Game for Practitioners

In this game participants have to make decisions to invest in the irrigation system maintenance and to extract water for irrigating their individual plots.

Browse instruction manual for the irrigation game by clicking this image.

Video on experiences with irrigation game in Colombia.

DOWNLOAD Instruction Manual and Forms for the Irrigation Game for Practitioners

Manual PDF File
Forms Word document (.docx)

Forest Game for Practitioners

In this game participants harvest from a renewable resource representing trees in a forest.

Browse instruction manual for the forestry game by clicking this image.

DOWNLOAD Instruction Manual and Forms for the Forest Game for Practitioners

Manual PDF File
Forms Word document (.docx)

Forest Game for Practitioners

In this game participants harvest from a renewable resource representing trees in a forest.

Browse instruction manual for the forestry game by clicking this image.

DOWNLOAD Instruction Manual and Forms for the Forest Game for Practitioners

Manual PDF File
Forms Word document (.docx)

Fishery Game for Practitioners

In this game participants have to decide where to fish and how much to fish.

Browse instruction manual for the fishery game by clicking this image.

DOWNLOAD Instruction Manual and Forms for the Fishery Game for Practitioners

Manual PDF File
Forms Word document (.docx)

Fishery Game for Practitioners

In this game participants have to decide where to fish and how much to fish.

Browse instruction manual for the fishery game by clicking this image.

DOWNLOAD Instruction Manual and Forms for the Fishery Game for Practitioners

Manual PDF File
Forms Word document (.docx)

Groundwater Game for Practitioners

In this game participants make decisions about which crop to plant where crops require different amounts of water.

Browse instruction manual for the groundwater game by clicking this image.

The video provides a step by step description of process to run the groundwater game as used in Andhra Pradesh, India. The video material is provided by Barbara Allen, and Thomas Hawthorne did the editing with the help of Sechindra Vallury and Marco Janssen.

DOWNLOAD Instruction Manual for Groundwater Game for Practitioners

Manual PDF File

Groundwater Game for Practitioners

In this game participants make decisions about which crop to plant where crops require different amounts of water.

Browse instruction manual for the groundwater game by clicking this image.

The video provides a step by step description of process to run the groundwater game as used in Andhra Pradesh, India. The video material is provided by Barbara Allen, and Thomas Hawthorne did the editing with the help of Sechindra Vallury and Marco Janssen.

DOWNLOAD Instruction Manual for Groundwater Game for Practitioners

Manual PDF File

Here are some practical tips to get prepared for using games as a participatory tool with communities:

  • Practice the protocol a number of times with volunteers. You need to get used to the logistics of the instructions, paperwork and calculating the payments. You may also adjust the protocols provided below to fit better your local conditions. The examples we provide are based on our research projects in various countries, but it may not fit your situation.
  • Compensate the participants by a donation to the community fund, a lunch, or something else valuable.
  • Make a check list of all the material that you need to bring with you, including pencils.
  • These games are not about teaching people what to do. Have an open mind and learn from the participants.
  • When you start using experimental games, use this initially with communities with whom you have a good relationship and where there are no serious conflicts within the community.
  • If you collect data for research purposes, you need to use a consent form.
  • Let us know how it went so we can share your experience on the Facebook group. Become a member by clicking on the button in the right column.

Download this tips as PDF file

Group of scholars and practitioners who use experimental games to facilitate self-governance of common resources. Group members can share their experience with the games, share photos on the games in action and ask questions on it’s proper application.

This website  was developed as part of, and funded by, the CGIAR Research Program on Policies, Institutions, and Markets (PIM) led by the International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI). PIM is in turn supported by these donors.

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The CGIAR Research Program on Policies, Institutions, and Markets (PIM) leads action-oriented research to equip decisionmakers with the evidence required to develop food and agricultural policies that better serve the interests of poor producers and consumers, both men and women. PIM combines the resources of CGIAR centers and numerous international, regional, and national partners. The program is led by the International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI). www.pim.cgiar.org